Nazioarteko ehun eragilek idatzitako gutuna: Covid 19a Giza Eskubide kontua da espetxeetan

ETXERAT (2020-V-18). Euskal presorik zaurgarrienak askatzeko eta batzuk baldintzapean aske uzteko eskatu diete Espainiako eta Frantziako gobernuei nazioarteko ehun eragilek, haien artean,Andy Carl, Brian Currin, Veronique Dudouet, Adolfo Perez Esquivel, Cuauhtemoc Cardenas edota Manuel Zelaya

Pandemiagatik ere «neurri ausart eta eskuzabalak» behar direla esan dute jarraian agertzen den gutun honetan...

Gutun hau idatzi zenetik, Covid kasuak eman dira gutxienez 59 espetxeetan Espainiar Estatuan eta 38tan estatu frantsean. Horien artean euskal presoak dituzten Roanne, Muret eta La Santéko espetxeetan. Estatu espainiarrean, besteak beste, Albolote, Herrera de la Mancha , Puerto II eta III eta Sevillan eman dira.

Euskal Herriko gatazka konpontzeko prozesuak modu historikoan egin du aurrera azken hamarkadan, eta aldatu egin du historiaren ibilbidea, milaka familia eta komunitateren bizitzak ukitzeaz gain. Bederatzi urte igaro dira ETAk indarkeriari amaiera eman zionetik, eta bi erakunde hura desegin zenetik. Baina prozesua osatu gabe dago oraindik, motibazio politikoko 230 preso baino gehiago baitaude espetxean.

Nazioarteko esperientziagatik badakigu edozein bake prozesuk ez duela aurrera egiten presoen auzia kudeatu gabe. Euskal Herrian gatazkaren konponbidea sustatzeko Nazioarteko Konferentziak, nazioarteko eragile nabarmenak buru zirela, Kofi Annan, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Bertie Ahern, Jonathan Powell eta Gerry Adams barne, gai horri irtenbide bat bilatzeko deia egin zien Espainiako eta Frantziako gobernuei (Aiete 2011). Hori ez da oraindik gertatu. Ondorioz, burutu gabeko prozesu bat dugu. Gatazka ez dago konponduta. Harremanak hautsita daude, eta ez da akordio politiko iraunkor eta egonkorrik aurkitu.

Orain, bai prozesuak bai gizateria osoak aurre egin behar diote Covid 19aren pandemiaren erronka berriari. Antonio Guterres Nazio Batuen idazkari nagusiak honela deitu dio: “Erakunde hau sortu zenetik egin den testik garrantzitsuena”. Horregatik, dei orokor bat egin du bakea gauzatzeko eta “gatazka armatuak konfinatzeko eta gure bizitzen aldeko egiazko borroka elkarrekin bideratzeko”. Espetxean dauden pertsonentzat Covid 19a arrisku larria dela ohartarazi dute Observatoire International des Prisons-ek, Gurutze Gorriaren Nazioarteko Komiteak, Amnesty Internationalek eta Torturaren eta tratu edo zigor anker edo apalesgarriaren Prebentziorako Europako Batzordeak. Era berean neurri bereziak aplikatzea gomendatu dute horiek guztiek, arriskuak gutxitzeko eta espetxeratutako pertsonen eskubideak osoki bermatzeko.

Presondegietan koronabirusa agertzeak ez die bakarrik espetxeratutako pertsonei eragiten. Espetxe seguruagoek ere komunitate seguruagoak dakartzate. Michelle Bachelet Giza Eskubideetarako Nazio Batuen Erakundeko ordezkariaren esanetan, “ezinbestekoa da gobernuek presoen egoerari erantzutea”. Eta zera gaineratu du: “Agintariek aztertu beharko lukete nola jarri aske birusarekiko bereziki zaurgarriak diren pertsonak, besteak beste, adin handienekoak eta gaixoak, bai eta arrisku gutxien duten atxilotuak ere”. Dunja Mijatović-ek, Europako Kontseiluko Giza Eskubideen komisarioak, dei egin die estatu kide guztiei “eskura dituzten espetxeratzearen alternatiba guztiak erabil ditzaten, ahal izan den guztietan eta diskriminaziorik gabe”.

Irmoki uste dugu berehalako ekintza humanitarioari heltzeko ordua dela, Nelson Mandela Arauetan1 datozenei heltzekoa alegia, Espainiako eta Frantziako gobernuek bere egin zituzten horiei. Ezin dugu denborarik galdu. Birus honek elkarri konektatuta gaudela erakusten digu, nahiz eta kolektibo batzuek arrisku handiagoa izan beste batzuek baino, hala nola adinekoen egoitzetan, espetxeetan edo ontzietan bizi diren pertsonek. Beraz, preso dauden herritarrak babestu nahi baditugu eta Euskal Herriko bake prozesuan aurrera egin nahi badugu, neurri sendoagoak beharrezkoak dira. Hori dela eta, premiaz honako neurri ausart eta eskuzabal hauek hartzea eskatzen diegu Espainiako eta Frantziako gobernuei:

1. Bereziki zaurgarriak diren euskal presoak berehala askatzea, 60 urtetik gorakoak eta aurretik patologiaren bat edo gaixo larriren bat dutenak barne.

2. Zigorren hiru laurdenak bete edo baldintzapeko askatasunaren baldintzak betetzen dituzten eta duela bi urte ETA desegin zenetik inolako reinzidentzia arriskurik ez duten presoak askatzea.

Onartzen dugu garrantzi handiko erabakia dela bere epaia bete aurretik preso dagoen pertsona bat askatzea. Erabaki hau konplexua da edozein sistema judizialentzat eta biktimak eta hauen senideak atsekabetu ditzake. Edonola ere, aurre egin behar diogun pandemiaren testuinguruan, eta ahal den neurrian espetxeetako langileen eta biztanleen ongizatea eta segurtasuna ziurtatzearren, eta bakearen mesedetan, urrats egokia eta zentzuzkoa dela uste dugu. Pertsona guztien oinarrizko duintasuna eta gizatasuna aitortzea garrantzitsua da. Zalantzarik ez dago Nelson Mandelak zer egingo zukeen. Orain da ordua, orain da haien ordua.

Sinatzaileak:

Endorsers: Covid-19 is a human rights issue for prisons The compassionate release of vulnerable Basque prisoners now will save lives and build peace.

Individuals: 1. Luis Alberto Albán Urbano, Colombia, Member of Parliament; 2. Carlos Alberto Carreño Marín, Colombia, Member of Parliament; 3. Lord Alderdice, United Kingdom, Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists; 4. Rafael Alegria, Honduras, Former Member of Parliament; former coordinator Via Campesina; 5. Miguel Álvarez Gándara, México, President of SERAPAZ, National Prize of Human Rights 2017; 6. Oscar Andrade, Uruguay, Senator; 7. Paavo Arhinmäki, Finland, Member of Parliament; ; 8. Rubén Berríos Martínez, Puerto Rico, President of the Puerto Rican Independence Party, Honorary President of the Socialist International; Vicepresident of the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America COPPPAL 9. Professor Bill Bowring, United Kingdom, Barrister, Fellowship of the Academy of Social Sciences; Director of the LLM/MA in Human Rights, Birkbeck College, University of London 10. David Brotherton, USA, Professor, John Jay College of Criminal Justice; City University of New York 11. Daniel Caggiani, Uruguay, Member of Parliament; Vicepresident of the Parlasur (Mercosur Parliament) 12. Rosa Mireya Cárdenas, Ecuador, Member of the Parlamento Andino; former viceminister for Justice 13. Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano, México, former Head of Government of Mexico City and a founder of the Party of the Democratic Revolution.; President of Fundación para la Democracia, Honorary President of the Socialist International 14. Andy Carl, United Kingdom, Independent Peacebuilding Adviser; 15. Pablo Catacumbo, Colombia, Senator; 16. Iván Cepeda, Colombia, Senador de la República de Colombia; 17. Vladimir Cerrón Rojas, Peru, Secretary General of Peru Libre; 18. Jonathan Cohen, United Kingdom, Executive Director; Conciliation Resources 19. Piedad Córdoba, Colombia, Lawyer; Former Senator 20. Nora Cortiñas, Argentina, Co-founder Madres de Plaza de Mayo-línea fundadora; 21. Professor Andrew Coyle PhD, United Kingdom, Fellow of King's College London; Emeritus Professor of Prison Studies, University of London 22. Seán Crowe TD, Ireland, Teachta Dála (Member of Parliament) for the Dublin South-West constituency; 23. Michael Culbert, Ireland, Director of Coiste na nIarchimí ; 24. Brian Currin, South Africa, South African Lawyer; 25. Meral Danis Bestas, Kurdistan, MP, Deputy Chair of HDP's Parliamentary Group; 26. Michael Ryan Davis, USA, Emeritus Professor of Creative Writing; University of California; Riverside 27. Dr. Diether Dehm, Germany, Mitglied des Bundestages; Member of the Bundestag 28. Mark Demesmaeker, Belgium, Senator, member of the OSCE parliamentary assembly; 29. Nadia Diaz, El Salvador, Member of Parliament; 30. Véronique Dudouet, Germany, Senior Research Advisor; 31. Luís Fazenda, Portugal, Secretary of International Relations, Bloco de Esquerda; Former Member of Parliament 32. Professor Carlos Fazio, México, Faculty of Political and Social Science Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM); writer, journalist 33. Jan Fermon, Belgium, Lawyer specialized in international (criminal) law; Secretary General International Association of Democratic Lawyers 34. Professor Firoz Cachalia, South Africa, University of Witwatersand; Chairman of Mothlante Foundation 35. Dr Simon Fisher, United Kingdom, Conflict Transformation Specialist, Oxford Brookes University; 36. Amina Frense, South Africa, South African Journalist; 37. Lilian Galán, Uruguay, Member of Parliament; 38. Julian Gallo Cubillos, Colombia, Senator; 39. Johan Galtung, Norway, Founder; Transcend; 40. Rev. Harold Good, Ireland, Former President of the Methodist Church; 41. Hugo Gutiérrez Gálvez, Chile, Member of Parliament; Human Rights Lawyer 42. Chris Hazzard MP, Ireland, MP for South Down; 43. Verónica Heredia, Argentina, Human rights Lawyer; 44. Jens Holm, Sweden, MP Swedish Parliament; 45. Andrej Hunko, Germany, Mitglied des Bundestages; Member of the Bundestag 46. Pedro Irigoin, Uruguay, Member of Parliament; 47. Vicenta Jerónimo Jimenez, Guatemala, Member of Parliament; 48. Omar de Jesús Restrepo, Colombia, Member of Parliament; 49. James Jordan, USA, Alliance for Global Justice; 50. Christian Juhl, Denmark, Member of Parliament; Trade Unionist 51. Ronnie Kasrils, South Africa, Former South African Intelligence Minister; 52. Gerry Kelly MLA, Ireland, Member of the Legislative Assembly , Stormont; 53. Avila Klimurray, Northern Ireland, Peace Activist; ; 54. Dr. Sara Koopman, USA, School of Peace and Conflict Studies, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (US); 55. Emma Leslie, Cambodia, Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, Siem Reap, Cambodia ; Executive Director 56. Criselda Lobo (Sandra Ramírez), Colombia, Senator; 57. Dr Gilberto López y Rivas, México, Research Professor Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia; 58. María de Lourdes Santiago, Puerto Rico, Vicepresident of the Puerto Rican Independence Party,; 59. Kenny MacAskill MP, Scotland, MP for East Lothian; Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Justice, 2007-2014 60. José Manuel Pureza, Portugal, Member of Parliament; 61. Verónica Mato, Uruguay, Member of Parliament; 62. Robert McBride, South Africa, MK veteran and former Political Prisoner; 63. Dr Erin McCandless, South Africa, Associate Professor, School of Governance University of Witwatersrand, South Africa; Research Director, Forging Resilient Social Contracts CoFounder and Editor of Books, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 64. Christopher Mitchell, USA, Emeritus Professor of Conflict Research,; School for Conflict Analysis & Resolution, George Mason University 65. Hugo Moldiz, Bolivia, Intellectual, coordinator of the Bolivian Chapter of the Intelectuals and Artist Network in defense of Humanity; 66. Saruhan Oluc, Kurdistan, MP, Deputy Chair of HDP's Parliamentary Group; 67. Hisyar Ozsoy, Kurdistan, MP, HDP's Co-spokesperson for Foreign Affairs; 68. Prof. John Packer, Canada, Neuberger-Jesin Professor of International Conflict Resolution; Director, Human Rights Research and Education Centre, University of Ottawa 69. Remy Pagani, Switzerland, Former mayor of Geneva; 70. Aziz Pahad, South Africa, Former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs; 71. Cirilo Perez, Guatemala, Secretary General MLP; 72. Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Argentina, Writer, 1980 Nobel Peace Prize; 73. Olivier Peter, Switzerland, Human rights Lawyer; 74. Isabel Pires, Portugal, Member of Parliament; 75. Tony Platt, USA, Distinguished Affiliated Scholar,; Center for the Study of Law & Society University of California, Berkeley, California 76. Jairo Reinaldo Cala, Colombia, Member of Parliament; 77. Leonel Rivero Rodriguez, México, Human Right Lawyer; 78. Carlos Alberto Rozanski, Argentina, Former Judge ot the Argentinian Federal Chamber, Founding Member of Foro Para la Justicia Democrática; 79. Alejandro Sánchez, Uruguay, Senator; 80. Victoria Sandino, Simanca Herrera, Colombia, Senator; 81. Jussi Saramo, Finland, Member of Parliament; ; 82. Dr. Lisa Schirch, USA, North American Research Director The Toda Peace Institute; Instructor, Eastern Mennonite University USA 83. Chris Spies, South Africa, Founder; Unyoke Foundation; 84. G.C. Spivak, India, Educator; 85. Håkan Svenneling, Sweden, Member of Parliament; Spokesperson for foreign affairs; 86. Steve Tombs, United Kingdom, Professor of Criminology; Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences School of Social Sciences & Global Studies Social Policy & Criminology Open University 87. Humberto Tumini, Argentina, President of the Freemen of the South Movement; 88. Clara Tur, Portugal, coordenadora da ANC (Asemblea Nacional Catalana) Portugal; 89. Feleknas Uca, Kurdistan, MP, HDP's Co-spokesperson for Foreign Affairs; 90. Nicolas Viera, Uruguay, Member of Parliament; 91. Luxshi Vimalarajah, Germany, Programme Director | Mediation and Dialogue Support Programme; Berghof Foundation 92. David Whyte, United Kingdom, Professor of Socio-legal Studies; Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology, University of Liverpool 93. Oliver Wils, Germany, Acting Director Berghof Foundation; 94. Marie-Joëlle Zahar, Canada, Professor Political Science Université de Montréal; Director Research Network on Peace Operations, Centre for International Studies and Research 95. Josetxo Zaldua, México, Chief Editor; Diario La Jornada 96. Manuel Zelaya, Honduras, Former President of Honduras; 97. Jean Ziegler, Switzerland, sociologist, Emeritus professor University of Geneva 98. Israel Zuñiga, Colombia, Senator.

Organisations: 1. Berghof Foundation, Germany; 2. PCdoB, Partido Comunista do Brasil, Brasil; 3. ELDH, European Lawyers for Democracy and Human Rights; 4. CRED, Centro di ricerca ed elaborazione per la democrazia, Italy; 5. IADL/AIJD, International Association of Democratic Lawyers.

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